Critical raw materials

Many technological developments and thus innovation pathways depend on the availability of specific raw materials. This can lead to technological bottlenecks, where further development of a technology may seem unattractive because of uncertainties of raw materials supply. The reliance on specific raw materials may also be problematic in terms of import dependencies in the face of geopolitical instabilities, tensions and civil conflicts or despotic regimes that can be fuelled by resource demand. Greater efficiency, circularity of use and the exploration of substitution potentials are innovative strategies for reducing such dependencies1. Other strategies aimed at enhancing governance consist in promoting transparency of payments for access to resources along the lines of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)2, certification schemes to avoid purchasing conflict materials3 and linking resource extraction better with poverty alleviation.4

  • 1. U.S. Department of Energy. 2011. Critical Materials Strategy. U.S. Department of Energy. http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/DOE_CMS2011_FINAL_Full.pdf. ; R.L. Moss, E. Tzimas, H. Kara, P. Willis, and J. Kooroshy. 2011. Critical Metals in Strategic Energy Technologies. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies. European Commission Joint Institute for Energy and Transport Research Centre. ; European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry. 2010. Critical Raw Materials for the EU. Report of the Ad-Hoc Working Group on Defining Critical Raw Materials. European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry. ; European Commission 2014b. On the Review of the List of Critical Raw Materials for the EU and the Implementation of the Raw Materials Initiative. COM(2014) 297 Final. Brussels: European Commission. ; AEA Technology plc. 2010. Review of the Future Resource Risks Faced by UK Business and an Assessment of Future Viability. A Research Report Completed for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.; British Geological Survey. 2012. Risk List 2012 — Current Supply Risk Index for Chemical Elements or Element Groups Which Are of Economic Value.; PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. 2011. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands. The Hague: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.; Long, Keith R., Bradley S. Van Gosen, Nora K. Foley, and Daniel Cordier. 2012. The Principal Rare Earth Elements Deposits of the United States: A Summary of Domestic Deposits and a Global Perspective. Springer. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-8679-2_7.
  • 2. Aaronson, Susan Ariel. 2011. ‘Limited Partnership: Business, Government, Civil Society, and the Public in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)’. Public Administration and Development 31 (1): 50–63.; Ölcer, Dilan. 2009. ‘Extracting the Maximum from the EITI’. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/225520261678.
  • 3. Bleischwitz, Raimund, Monika Dittrich, and Chiara Pierdicca. 2012. ‘Coltan from Central Africa, International Trade and Implications for Any Certification’. Resources Policy 37 (1): 19–29.; Young, Steven B. 2015. ‘Responsible Sourcing of Metals: Certification Approaches for Conflict Minerals and Conflict-Free Metals’. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 1–19.; Banat, Amanda Bryant. 2002. ‘Solving the Problem of Conflict Diamonds in Sierra Leone: Proposed Market Theories and International Legal Requirements for Certification of Origin’. Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 19: 939.; Bleischwitz, Raimund. 2014. ‘Transparency in the Extractive Industries: Time to Ask for More’. Global Environmental Politics. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/GLEP_e_00254 .; Andrews-Speed, Philip, Raimund Bleischwitz, Tim Boersma, Corey Johnson, Geoffrey Kemp, and Stacy D. VanDeveer. 2014. Want, Waste Or War?: The Global Resource Nexus and the Struggle for Land, Energy, Food, Water and Minerals. Routledge. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sEpWBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&o....
  • 4. Pegg, Scott. 2006. ‘Mining and Poverty Reduction: Transforming Rhetoric into Reality’. Journal of Cleaner Production, Improving Environmental, Economic and Ethical Performance in the Mining Industry. Part 1. Environmental Management and Sustainable DevelopmentImproving Environmental, Economic and Ethical Performance in the Mining Industry. Part 1. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 14 (3–4): 376–87. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.06.006.

Knowledge development and diffusion

Scientific publications - Critical materials

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Scientific publications per 1000 researchers - Critical materials

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity

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Scientific publications per mill. inhab. - Critical materials

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Influence on the direction of search

Consumption of Rare Earth Elements (other rare earth compounds)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Antimony (metals)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Antimony (ores & concentrates)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Antimony (oxides)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Chromium (metals)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Chromium (ores & concentrates)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Cobalt (metals)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Cobalt (ores)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Cobalt (oxides)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Fluorspar

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Magnesite & Magnesium

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Niobium (ores)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Phosphate rock

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Rare Earth Elements (cerium compounds)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Rare Earth Elements (compounds)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Rare Earth Elements (ferro-cerium & other pyrophoric alloys)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Rare Earth Elements (metals)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Tantalum (ores)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Tungsten (carbide)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Tungsten (metal)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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Consumption of Tungsten (ores & concentrates)

In countries where consumption or dependency rises there may be a stronger interest in critical raw materials

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