Renewable energy

The transition of the energy system towards renewable sources is an important part of the fight against anthropogenic climate change.1 2 Other beneficial side effects include better local air quality and more energy independence. For some examples of how you can use the indicators here in order to get a better understanding of the relation between research and innovation and the transition towards renewable energy, please look here

  • 1. Evans, Annette, Vladimir Strezov, and Tim J. Evans. 2012. ‘Assessment of Utility Energy Storage Options for Increased Renewable Energy Penetration’. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (6): 4141–47.
  • 2. Cecati, Carlo, Costantino Citro, and Pierluigi Siano. 2011. ‘Combined Operations of Renewable Energy Systems and Responsive Demand in a Smart Grid’. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on 2 (4): 468–76.

Knowledge development and diffusion

Patents in Fossil energy efficiency

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include patents in fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to patents in renewable energy.

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Patents in Fossil energy efficiency per 1000 researchers

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include patents in fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to patents in renewable energy.

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Patents in Fossil energy efficiency per mill. inhab.

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include patents in fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to patents in renewable energy.

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Patents in Renewable Energy

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within renewable energy.

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Patents in Renewable Energy per 1000 researchers

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within renewable energy.

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Patents in Renewable Energy per mill. inhab.

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within renewable energy.

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Scientific publications - Fossil Fuel Efficiency

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include publications related to fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to publications related to renewable energy.

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Scientific publications - Renewable Energy

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Scientific publications per 1000 researchers - Fossil Fuel Efficiency

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include publications related to fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to publications related to renewable energy.

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Scientific publications per 1000 researchers - Renewable Energy

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Scientific publications per mill. inhab. - Fossil Fuel Efficiency

Research and development efforts in the renewable energy innovation system may compete with those in the fossil fuel innovation system. We include publications related to fossil fuel efficiency as a contrast to publications related to renewable energy.

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Scientific publications per mill. inhab. - Renewable Energy

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Influence on the direction of search

Energy dependence

Renewable energy can help to reduce energy dependence.

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Environmental policy stringency

The EPS is an index of environmental policy instruments primarily related to climate and air pollution. Amongst other things, it covers emission limits, emissions trading and feed-in tariffs. Such policy instruments can create more demand for renewable energy.

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GHG emissions per capita - Energy sector

The development of GHG emissions from the energy sector gives an indication of how renewable energy may have already contributed to the decarbonisation of the energy sector or what its potential could be.

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Entrepreneurial experimentation

Government expenditure on renewable energy demo projects

Demonstration projects allow for experimentation in real-world settings.

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Government expenditure on renewable energy demo projects (per capita)

Demonstration projects allow for experimentation in real-world settings.

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Market formation

Combustile renewables and waste (% of total)

Combustible renewables and waste are renewable sources of energy that include any plant matter or waste that is used directly as fuel or converted into fuel, electricity or heat.

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Electricity production from renewables, excl. hydro (% of total)

Renewable energy production without hydro, largely considered an established technology, can provide insight into people's willingness to adopt clean energy technologies, government's efforts to meeting emission demands, and the maturity of the clean energy market.

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Share of electricity from renewable sources

By tracking the share of electricity from renewable sources, one can assess the dynamics of market development and whether it is still a niche or already a more established market.

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Legitimation of technologies

Eurobarometer survey - Environmental concern

A higher prioritisation of environmental issues should translate into more support for renewable energy.

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Resource mobilization

Employment in Renewable Energy sector

Employment in a sector mobilises expertise.

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Public R&D spending - Energy sector (PPS per capita)

This may benefit the generation of renewable energy knowledge (but also of knowledge on fossil fuel efficiency).

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