Water and waste water

Water is an essential resource for human livelihoods and the economy. Overexploitation, pollution and climate change threaten its supply.1 It is important to develop ways of using water more efficiently, less polluting and in a way that is well integrated with local hydrologic cycles. Water consumption is often embedded in the consumption of other goods. E.g. textiles bought in one region may ‘embody’ the production-related consumption of water in another region.2 Desertification threatens Member States of the European Research Area and more appropriate economic practices and governance processes are urgently needed.

  • 1. Huntjens, Patrick, Louis Lebel, Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Jeff Camkin, Roland Schulze, and Nicole Kranz. 2012. ‘Institutional Design Propositions for the Governance of Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector’. Global Environmental Change 22 (1): 67–81.
  • 2. Hoekstra, Arjen Y., and Pin Q. Hung. 2005. ‘Globalisation of Water Resources: International Virtual Water Flows in Relation to Crop Trade’. Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 45–56.

Knowledge development and diffusion

Patents in wastewater

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Patents in wastewater per 1000 researchers

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Patents in wastewater per mill. inhab.

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Patents in water related technologies (except wastewater)

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Patents in water related technologies (except wastewater) per 1000 researchers

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Patents in water related technologies (except wastewater) per mill. inhab.

Patents can help protect and realize innovations within water and wastewater.

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Scientific publications - Water & Wastewater

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Scientific publications per 1000 researchers - Water & Wastewater

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Scientific publications per mill. inhab. - Water & Wastewater

Publications serve as proxy for research and knowledge diffusion activity.

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Legitimation of technologies

Eurobarometer survey - Environmental concern

A higher prioritisation of environmental issues should translate into more support for sustainable water use.

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Resource mobilization

BERD Sewerage, waste management, remediation activities

Private research and development expenditure into sewerage solutions supports innovation in the waste water sector.

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Public R&D spending - Environment sector (PPS per capita)

This may benefit the generation of knowledge on more sustainable water use.
 

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Public R&D spending - Environment sector (share of GBAORD)

This may benefit the generation of knowledge on more sustainable water use.

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